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Alternative Medicine Professor | Alternative Medicine Clinic | Alternative Medicine Advice | Blog
Alternative Medicine Professor | Alternative Medicine Clinic | Alternative Medicine Advice | Blog

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Alternative Medicine Clinic | Alternative Medicine Store | Alternative Medicine Campaign
Alternative Medicine Clinic | Alternative Medicine Store | Alternative Medicine Campaign

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His (Most Majestic) Royal Eminence , The Supreme High Quack , Joseph Chikelue Obi , Hereby Formidably Disseminates the Following Great Diktats :

* There is No Such Thing as Science Based Medicine in any Basic Statutory Definition of Orthodox Clinical Medicine ; anywhere in the World .

* Orthodox Clinical Medicine is Predominantly an Art , Not a Science.

* Over 75% of Orthodox Clinical Medicine is Not Evidence Based.

* Over 99% of Orthodox Clinical Medicine is Not Science Based.

* If Science Based Medicine is currently being given such Undue Eminence ; then it is only right and proper that Art Based Medicine should equally be given Appropriate Prominence too.

By Unimpeachable Regal Order (of) :

QuackFather-in-Council ,

Quackingham Palace ,

Quackopolis Square ,

Royal Borough of Quackingham ,

Postcode Q1 DUCK ,

Imperial Realm of the QuackoSphere .

* * *

Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi | Title of the Moment | Joseph Chikelue Obi

1000001 (A Million and One) Amazing Aristocratic Titles of The Supreme High Quack , Joseph Chikelue Obi.

Title Of The Second ( Please Do Not Even Bother To Keep Track Of Them )

* His Supreme Majesty | Joseph Chikelue Obi | Monarch-in-Chief

This Particular Title has been Sourced Directly from :

The Hallowed Scroll

of the Fountain of Honour (Fons Honorum) ,

Quackingham Palace ,

Quackopolis Square ,

Royal Borough of Quackingham ,

Postcode Q1 DUCK ,

Imperial Realm of the QuackoSphere .

* Kindly Always Remember that , (Under International Quack Law) , Professor Obi is Perpetually Compelled to have Duly Used Every Single One of his Aforementioned 1000001 Titles ; (At Most) Every 1000001 Seconds.

*This Essentially Boils Down to an Accredited Recurring Rate of (At Least) : One Aristocratic Title Per Second.

. . . So Help Him God . . .

Our New Alternative Medicine Campaign Website Address is

The Old Website Address is No Longer Used by us , as it has fully served it's due purpose.

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Obi | Ghana | Doctor Joseph Obi | Greece | Doctor Joseph Obi | Grenada | Doctor Joseph Obi | Guatemala | Doctor Joseph Obi | Guinea | Doctor Joseph Obi | Guinea-Bissau | Doctor Joseph Obi | Guyana | Doctor Joseph Obi | Haiti | Doctor Joseph Obi | Honduras | Doctor Joseph Obi | Hungary | Doctor Joseph Obi | Iceland | Doctor Joseph Obi | India | Doctor Joseph Obi | Indonesia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Iran | Doctor Joseph Obi | Iraq | Doctor Joseph Obi | Ireland {Republic} | Doctor Joseph Obi | Israel | Doctor Joseph Obi | Italy | Doctor Joseph Obi | Ivory Coast | Doctor Joseph Obi | Jamaica | Doctor Joseph Obi | Japan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Jordan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kazakhstan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kenya | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kiribati | Doctor Joseph Obi | Korea North | Doctor Joseph Obi | Korea South | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kosovo | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kuwait | Doctor Joseph Obi | Kyrgyzstan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Laos | Doctor Joseph Obi | Latvia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Lebanon | Doctor Joseph Obi | Lesotho | Doctor Joseph Obi | Liberia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Libya | Doctor Joseph Obi | Liechtenstein | Doctor Joseph Obi | Lithuania | Doctor Joseph Obi | Luxembourg | Doctor Joseph Obi | Macedonia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Madagascar | Doctor Joseph Obi | Malawi | Doctor Joseph Obi | Malaysia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Maldives | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mali | Doctor Joseph Obi | Malta | Doctor Joseph Obi | Marshall Islands | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mauritania | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mauritius | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mexico | Doctor Joseph Obi | Micronesia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Moldova | Doctor Joseph Obi | Monaco | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mongolia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Montenegro | Doctor Joseph Obi | Morocco | Doctor Joseph Obi | Mozambique | Doctor Joseph Obi | Myanmar, {Burma} | Doctor Joseph Obi | Namibia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Nauru | Doctor Joseph Obi | Nepal | Doctor Joseph Obi | Netherlands | Doctor Joseph Obi | New Zealand | Doctor Joseph Obi | Nicaragua | Doctor Joseph Obi | Niger | Doctor Joseph Obi | Nigeria | Doctor Joseph Obi | Norway | Doctor Joseph Obi | Oman | Doctor Joseph Obi | Pakistan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Palau | Doctor Joseph Obi | Panama | Doctor Joseph Obi | Papua New Guinea | Doctor Joseph Obi | Paraguay | Doctor Joseph Obi | Peru | Doctor Joseph Obi | Philippines | Doctor Joseph Obi | Poland | Doctor Joseph Obi | Portugal | Doctor Joseph Obi | Qatar | Doctor Joseph Obi | Romania | Doctor Joseph Obi | Russian Federation | Doctor Joseph Obi | Rwanda | Doctor Joseph Obi | St Kitts & Nevis | Doctor Joseph Obi | St Lucia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Saint Vincent & the Grenadines | Doctor Joseph Obi | Samoa | Doctor Joseph Obi | San Marino | Doctor Joseph Obi | Sao Tome & Principe | Doctor Joseph Obi | Saudi Arabia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Senegal | Doctor Joseph Obi | Serbia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Seychelles | Doctor Joseph Obi | Sierra Leone | Doctor Joseph Obi | Singapore | Doctor Joseph Obi | Slovakia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Slovenia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Solomon Islands | Doctor Joseph Obi | Somalia | Doctor Joseph Obi | South Africa | Doctor Joseph Obi | South Sudan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Spain | Doctor Joseph Obi | Sri Lanka | Doctor Joseph Obi | Sudan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Suriname | Doctor Joseph Obi | Swaziland | Doctor Joseph Obi | Sweden | Doctor Joseph Obi | Switzerland | Doctor Joseph Obi | Syria | Doctor Joseph Obi | Taiwan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Tajikistan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Tanzania | Doctor Joseph Obi | Thailand | Doctor Joseph Obi | Togo | Doctor Joseph Obi | Tonga | Doctor Joseph Obi | Trinidad & Tobago | Doctor Joseph Obi | Tunisia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Turkey | Doctor Joseph Obi | Turkmenistan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Tuvalu | Doctor Joseph Obi | Uganda | Doctor Joseph Obi | Ukraine | Doctor Joseph Obi | United Arab Emirates | Doctor Joseph Obi | United Kingdom | Doctor Joseph Obi | United States | Doctor Joseph Obi | Uruguay | Doctor Joseph Obi | Uzbekistan | Doctor Joseph Obi | Vanuatu | Doctor Joseph Obi | Vatican City | Doctor Joseph Obi | Venezuela | Doctor Joseph Obi | Vietnam | Doctor Joseph Obi | Yemen | Doctor Joseph Obi | Zambia | Doctor Joseph Obi | Zimbabwe | Doctor Joseph Obi

Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi

UK Government Petition Results | Alternative Medicine Wins Again | Dr Obi Leads CAM To Victory !

Downing Street Alternative Medicine Petition : Final (Closing Results)

* Campaign to increase Central UK Government Support for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) = 1028 Signatures (Created by Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi)

* Campaign to decrease Central UK Government Support for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) = 43 Signatures (Created by an Arrogant Bunch of Skeptic Losers)

Final UK Verdict : Alternative Medicine Supporters currently outnumber Arrogant Skeptic Scientists ; by a Formidable Factor of over 20 to 1

Sunday, January 27, 2008

Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi : " I'm a Survivor - Not a Saint "

Alternative Medicine Strongman , and Royal College of Alternative Medicine (RCAM) Provost , Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi , has today profusely thanked all of his countless supporters for firmly standing by him during the current World War Obi.

Speaking this morning after devoutly attending an Early Morning Catholic Mass Ceremony , the Unsinkable Founder of the Alternative Medicine Fights Back Campaign firmly averred :

"When I agreed to take on this role about a year ago , I categorically stated that I was a Survivor , not a Saint ( a quip which was later on used to describe me by a highly respected News Editor ).

Thankfully , this catchphrase description seems to have tenaciously stuck on , and anyone who knows the true facts of my life will definitely agree that such words ultimately ring true.

That being said , permit me to thank you all for your exceedingly wonderful support - God Bless You ! "

Dr Joseph Obi : What Those That Matter Really Think About Him

Comprehensively Ignore most of the Extremely Idle Tittle Tattle on the Internet .

Here is what the Powers That Be really think about Professor Joseph Obi :

"The first thing which momentously strikes you about Joseph Chikelue Obi is his totally unique ability to effortlessly mingle where Angels even fear to tread.

That Guy is Fearless - Absolutely Fearless."

- Permanent Secretary , British Government , Whitehall , London

"Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi is a Survivor , not a Saint "

- Tabloid Newspaper Editor , Europe.

"Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi is Solid Living Proof that a Fully Qualified Medical Doctor can still be successful in countless other professional areas outside the field of Orthodox Clinical Medicine."

- University Vice Chancellor

"Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi spells very (very) serious trouble for us - He must be stopped immediately !"

-General Medical Council (GMC) Boss , London , UK

"Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi will probably go down in history as the Most Intrepid Medical Rebel of all time . . ."

- British Medical Association (BMA) Stalwart

"Joseph Chikelue Obi is simply unstoppable ; whatever anyone tries to do to him.

If you really can't handle that fact , then go take a flying leap into the Grand Canyon or someplace else"

- Seasoned International Diplomat

"At last we now have a Black British Doctor who is not afraid of holding the General Medical Council to account for all of it's racist atrocities over the past few centuries - Long live Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi"

- Ethnic Minority Leader , National Health Service (NHS)

"I simply cannot believe that you are just going to sit there smiling and let all of these Racists get away with this. Press charges against both them and the GMC , for heaven's sake. Sue them all . . . Do Something before they ruin you !!! "

- The totally embarrassed Senior Northumbria Police Officer who carefully verified all of Professor Joseph Obi 's Qualifications and gave him a clean bill of health , after a (Headline Hungry) Racist Newspaper Journalist (with very strong links to the UK Most Racist Political Party) conned him (and many others) into thinking that Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi was an UberQuack.

For more exciting news about the Amazing Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi , please kindly stay tuned.

Best Wishes,

NHS Alternative Medicine Campaign Team

Professor Joseph Obi : Why I Often Choose To Graduate In Absentia

Controversial Founder of the Alternative Medicine Fights Back Campaign , Professor Joseph Obi , has categorically defended his highly unusual habit of Graduating in Absentia ; just as all of the Internationally Recognized Universities where he successfully graduated from dramatically rose to his defence.

Speaking in Belfast during a recent cocktail party to celebrate his 17th Post MBBS Year as an Internationally Licensed Medical Doctor , Professor Obi said :

"A lot of people tend to think that I often refuse to show up at Graduation Ceremonies just simply for the fun of it , but that particular accusation is exceptionally misleading indeed.

The truth of the matter is that most of the times when these Graduation Ceremonies were taking place , I was either on the other side of the world doing Charitable Medical Work or busy someplace else helping others.

Hence my current title of International Man of Mystery . . .

The good thing about Graduating in Absentia is that it perfectly suits my purpose ; and will continue to do so till I personally choose to do otherwise"

Please kindly click here to see the University of Dundee (Scotland) Official Graduation Ceremony Record for Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi.

Dr Joseph Chikelue Obi Did Graduate From The University Of Dundee Says Academic Registry

The Academic Registry University of Dundee , Scotland has officially confirmed that Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi did inded graduate from the University of Dundee , Scotland , with a Master's Degree in Public Health.

Speaking last week over the phone, one of the exasperated university officers said:

" We have received hundreds of enquiries about Dr Joseph Obi and we can categorically say that yes he did attend the University of Dundee where he successfully completed ( and was duly awarded) a Masters Degree in Public Health MPH

His dissertation topic was on the Smoking Cessation Drug Bupropion (Zyban).

The University of Dundee cannot understand why so many people are falsely accusing Joseph Chikelue Obi of not graduating from this Noble Institution"

Click here to see the University of Dundee's Graduation Ceremony Record for Professor Joseph Chikelue Obi.

University of Dundee : Graduation 2002

Graduation Lists - Thursday 10.30am

Conferment of Degrees by the Chancellor

Schools of Medicine and Dentistry

Before presenting the medical, dental and nursing graduands the Dean will ask them to assent to a declaration that they will maintain traditional standards of professional conduct.

Bachelor of Dental Surgery

Susan E. Baines, BMSc, Dundee with Honours
Caroline H. Graham, BMSc, Banff with Honours
Nadia Abdel-Fattah, BMSc, Dundee with Commendation
Tanya Cerajewska,St Andrews with Commendation
Kathryn C. Farrier, Preston with Commendation
Joanna C. Gordon, Edinburgh with Commendation
Rachna Kalian, Glasgow with Commendation
Louise K. Pettigrew, Lyndhurst with Commendation
Kholoud H. Al-Foudari, Kuwait
Nouri Al-Qenaei, Kuwait
Yvonne M. Anderson, Tayport
Vaila L. Belford, Kinross
Asma Buhamrah, Kuwait
Brendan Conn, BMSc, Peterhead
Laura M. Cumming, Kirkcaldy
William H. Esler, BSc, Dundee
Christopher J. Ewart, Glasgow
Shan Gandhi, Livingston
Rachel A. Green, Aberdeen
Emma J. Henley, Edinburgh
Neil C. Hunter, Prestwick
Talal Iryahi, Kuwait
Furqan Ishak, Dundee
Laurence F. Keenan, Republic of Ireland
Graham M. Laws, Cupar
Richard K. Lindsay, Glasgow
Andrew R. Livingstone, Newtownards
Paul H. McAllister, Carnoustie
Catherine F. MacDonald, Kirkcaldy
Rose MacDonald, Londonderry
Iona H. McKay, Inverness
James K. MacLaine, BMSc, Bushmills
Derek A. Marner, Greenock
Ruth Murphy, Falkirk
Meera Nataraja, Inverness
Suresh K. Nathan, Dundee
Timothy Neill, Dundee
Nicholas J. O'Kane, Coleraine
Kevin N. Ogg, Dundee
James Oliphant, Belfast
Mary C. Peggie, Dundee
Gillian Pozzi, Dundee
Lindsay Roberts, Coatbridge
Graeme D. Smart, Kinross
Euan Smith, Edinburgh
Clare Thomson, Falkirk
Claudia M. Tipping, Errol
Riaz Usmani, Dundee
Barry Wright, Alloa

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

Naveena Thomas, Malaysia with Honours
Elizabeth A. Harvey, Dundee with Honours
Monika Hofer, BMSc, Dundee with Honours
Michael J. Moneypenny, BSc (Bath), Leiden with Honours
Safa Al-Shamma, Dundee with Commendation
Christian J. Boardman, Reading with Commendation
Gordon W. Duncan, Banchory with Commendation
Rachel J. Kearns, Dundee with Commendation
Christopher D. McKenna, Livingston with Commendation
Abel Zachariah, Malaysia with Commendation
Mohamad N. Abdullah Kelali, Cardiff
Hussain Aboud, London
Steven J. Anderson, Kinross
William J. Anderson, Armagh
Yaa Antwi-Yeboah, Essex
Katherine M. Armstrong, Dundee
Matthew D. Armstrong, Craigavon
Omar A. Azzam, United Arab Emirates
Seema Basil, London
Joanna M. Behrsin, Cheshire
Ibrahim N. Bhatti, Prestatyn
Satvinder K. Bhooee, Slough
Elin W. Blakstad, Norway
John Bonner, Dundee
Claire L. Bowen, Littleover
Jonathan W. Bradley, Scarborough
Emma Britton, Stockton-on-Tees
Elizabeth M. Brown, BSc (Edinburgh), Balerno
Gill L. Buchanan, Workington
John Burns, Turriff
Ryan L. Campbell, Prestwick
Rajesh K. Chelliah, Malaysia
Raj K. Chelliah, Malaysia
Earn C. Chew, Malaysia
Sonia Chohan, London
James H. Clarkson, Glasgow
Charmlan Collingwood, Dundee
Kevin R. Cormack, Bridge of Don
Paul Coulter, Bangor
Aileen Coupe, Dundee
Simon Crawley, Newry
David J. Cronin, Croyden
Lianne E. Currie, Aberdeen
Sarah V. Damoglou, Lisburn
Gillian Davies, Bradford
Mark Davies, BSc (Manchester), Bristol
John Dempster, Dunbarton
Jenny A. Dickinson, Dinas Powys
Gerd C. Dobloug, Norway
Philip M. Dutton, Bedford
Julie Dyker, Kirriemuir
Winston Erng, Malaysia
Paul Fivey, Larbert
Mark L. Ford, Coleraine
Christopher J. Foster, Carnoustie
Michael A. Fyall, Troon
Tira Galm, Oldham
In Abs Amir H. Ghanbari, Birmingham
Andrew J. Gilhespie, Glasgow
Shilpa R. Grewal, Craigavon
Aaron Guard, Dundee
Andrew J. Harris, BSc, Stockton-on-Tees
In Abs Saqib U. Hasan, Carlisle
Rachel C. Henry, Lisburn
Keith K. Hussey, Aberdeen
Ahmed Jafari, London
Alistair B. Johnstone, Lanark
Sarah J. Kelt, Stone
Alison A. Kerr, Dalbeattie
Heather G. King, Irvine
Andrew Kinshuck, Liverpool
Wendy J. Knoops, Indonesia
Michael C. Lim, Malaysia
James E. Liptrot, Stockport
David W. Logan, Uddingston
In Abs Gavin J. Love, BMSc, Glasgow
Stephen Lowe, Elgin
Claire Lynch, Larbert
Louise McCullough, Ballymena
Nicola P. McCullough, Perth
Ruairidh H. McKay, Dundee
Catherine A. McWilliam, BSc (Glasgow), Dundee
Fraser W. Magee, Kilmarnock
Sharmeen Maleque, Dundee
Fera H. Mansor, Malaysia
Catrina A. Mathieson, Glasgow
Kirsty A. Melhuish, Newport-on-Tay
Michael H. Miller, Lochgelly
Alexander Minty, Dunfermline
Mohamed A. Mohamed, Saudi Arabia
Craig Morton, Dundee
Kenneth R. Muir, Thornhill
Frances A. Murdoch, Glasgow
John P. Murdoch, Stirling
Rohan Nair, Malaysia
Simon Nash, Dorset
Alyson J. Nelson, Banbridge
Joanne Ng, Newcastle upon Tyne
Chiew K. Ng, Malaysia
Gillian A. Nixon, Edinburgh
Gavin K. O'Neill, Cookstown
Gareth J. Padfield, Edinburgh
Reema P. Patel, Milton Keynes
Dawn K. Penman, Dunfermline
Alison K. Ramsay, Dundee
Alastair N. Reid, Glasgow
Charles E. Roberts, BSc (UCL), Dundee
Daniel J. Royston, BMSc, Glasgow
Catriona Rundle, Wormit
Akash K. Saxena, Surrey
In Abs Shamyla W. Shah, Dundee
Mohamed Shawgi, Lisburn
Colin S. Smith, Airdrie
George H. Smith, Woodbridge
Deborah E. Soukop, BSc (St. Andrews), Kelvinside
Loveena Sreedharan, Stockport
Helen Steed, Dundee
Allan C. Stirling, Bridge of Weir
Syed J. Syed Jamal, Malaysia
Gavin J. Taylor, Livingston
Gareth J. Thompson, Wemyss Bay
In Abs Lynsey A. Urquhart, Glasgow
Lynne K. Waring, Dumfries
Carol M. Watson, Glasgow
Louise A. Wilkes, Tunbridge Wells
Victoria E. Young, Bolton
Zaraquiza Zolkipli, Malaysia

Bachelor of Medical Science

First Class Honours

David C. Atkinson, Edinburgh Pharmacology
In Abs Ewan Clark, Monifieth Applied Orthopaedic Technology
Dawn Fleming, Dundee Forensic Medicine
Gordon J. Reid, Banchory Physiology
In Abs Julie M. Smith, Tain Applied Orthopaedic Technology
Jamie S. Wilson, King's Lynn Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease

Second Class Honours

(Division I)
In Abs Andrew C. Bowles, Carnoustie Pharmacology
Kunal K. Choudhary, Peterlee Anatomy
Andrew J. Innes, Aberdeen Pharmacology
Emma L. McQuillan, Belfast Forensic Medicine
In Abs Rikki S. Mistry, Harrow Applied Orthopaedic Technology
Alison K. Moore, Glasgow Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease
In Abs Daniel Schenk, Skelmorlie Pharmacology
Ian H. Wilkinson, Ullapool Forensic Medicine
In Abs Jennifer A. Wilson, Carluke Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease

Second Class Honours

(Division II)

In Abs Alison W. MacEwen, Glasgow Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease
Ross J. Moy, Inverkeithing Anatomy

Bachelor of Science in Medical Science
Abdul A. Al-Fadhli, Kuwait
Andrew Robert Forsyth, Dunfermline

Bachelor of Nursing

In Abs Barbara Ford, USA
In Abs M. Liguorie Ibeh, Kenya
In Abs John K. Gikonyo, Kenya
In Abs Gaynor E. Lloyd, Reading, in Palliative Care
Diana K. Main, London
In Abs Edith W. Ndungu, Kenya
In Abs Wendy P. Murray, Carnoustie
Evelyn K. Njeru, Kenya
In Abs Kimberley A. O'Rourke, Newmarket
Susan Prac, Israel
Susan A. Rhoda, Gibraltar, in Palliative Care
Iain R. Shuttleworth, Tidworth
In Abs Janet Wesonga, Kenya

Master of Dental Science

Jennifer D. Hally, BDS, Meigle, in Dental Primary Care
Heba Hammoud, BSc (Syria), U.A.E.
For a Thesis entitled "A Qualitative and Quantitative Histochemical Study of Neovascularisation in Human Periapical Granuloma"

Master of Medical Education

Nastasiah N. Kimeu, Kenya, with Distinction
Jawad I. Abu Harb, Palestine
Peter W. Broderick, MD (USA), USA
In Abs Vincent Cooper, MBChB (Bristol), Stoke on Trent
Jonathan Edgar, MBChB (Belfast), Edinburgh
In Abs Derek Gallen, MBBS (London), Earls Barton
Deborah Gill, MBBS (London), Enfield
Timothy J. Hodgetts, MBBS (London), Aldershot
Raymond G. Hubble, Canada
Vikram Jha, MBBS (India), Knaresborough
John K. Kurui, DipMedEd (Kenya), Kenya
Rose Martin, Perth
Colin A. Melville, MBChB (Aberdeen), Brocton
In Abs Honor M. Merriman, MBBS (London), Oxford
Boi B. Osotsi, DipMEdEd (Kenya), Kenya
In Abs Stephen H. Sylvester, MBChB (South Africa), Eaglescliffe
Paul M. Tuukuo, DipMedEd (Kenya), Kenya

Master of Orthopaedic Surgery

In Abs Syed A. Ahmad, MBBS (India), India
In Abs Amal Bhattacharya, MBBS (India), Cambridgeshire
In Abs Vinod George, MBBS (India), India
In Abs Chingoran K.Jayakrishnan, MBBS (India), Dundee
In Abs Meenakshi S. Kandasamy, D.Ortho (India), Dundee
In Abs Manish Katruwar, MBBS (India), India
Mubarek M. Kerim, MBBS (India), Ormskirk
Vijayu V. Killampalli, MBBS (India), Birmingham
Arun K. Khajuria, MSOrth (India), Perth
Salman Mahmood, MBBS (Pakistan), Ireland
In Abs Ashish R. Patel, MBBS (India), India
Tahir Rafiq, Republic of Ireland
In Abs Chinnusamy Rajavelu, Dundee
A. Francis Roy, MBBS (India) India
Vivek Sharma, Birmingham
Mhd I. Sedki, Dundee
In Abs Vattaklvalasv S. Senthilvel, MBBS (India), Dundee
Muhammad S. Shahid, MBBS (Pakistan), Republic of Ireland
In Abs Kailas Viswanath, MBBS (India), India
Hany K. Wadie, MBChB (Egypt), Dundee

Master of Palliative Care

In Abs Christiane M. Banton, Fradley

Master of Public Health

Evelyn M. Bate, BNurse (Liverpool), St Andrews
Joyce W. Coppola, Kirkcaldy
Durairaj Gopalakrishnan, MBBS (India), India
Angela M. Millar, Dundee
In Abs Joseph C. Obi, MBBS (Nigeria), Gateshead
In Abs Jillian B. Perkins, BSc (Abertay), Edinburgh

Master of Science

Steven Herron, DipCBP, Belfast, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy, with Distinction
Sally M. Hill, DipCBP, Insch, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy, with Distinction

Connie M. Balayo, Uganda, in Environmental Health
Marian Carr, BSc (Ulster), DipCBP, Newcastle, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Shirley E. Courtney, BSc (Glasgow Caledonian), DipCBP, Ayr, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Alison Fletcher, Paisley, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
In Abs Jennifer A. Garden, MA (Glasgow), Glasgow
For a Thesis entitled "Perceptions of the use of oral contraception in female nursing students"
In Abs Vera Jovanovska, MD (Macedonia), Macedonia, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
In Abs Steven R. Lamont, BSc, Monifieth
For a thesis entitled "Plasticity in the Hippocampus following Chronic Antidepressant Treatment"
Claire K. Lamza, Grangemouth, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Joyce E. Levitt, DDSc (Canada), Dundee, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Patricia A. McBride, BA (Paisley), BSc (Caledonian), DipCBP, Gourock, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Jacqueline C. McKenna, Republic of Ireland, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Theresa M. McLean, BA (Stirling), Denny, in Primary Care
Marjorie C. McMurray, Armagh, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Anne S. Mather, BSc (Abertay), Lintrathen
For a Thesis entitled "A randomised controlled trial of the effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in older people with poorly responsive depressive disorder"
Panayotis Papareponis, BSc (Greece), Dundee, in Environmental Health
In Abs Paul A. Quinn, BSc (Ulster), DipCBP, Belfast, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Calum Ross, DipCBP, Glenrothes, in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
In Abs Trevor Thompson, MA (Oxford), MBBS (London), Glasgow, in Primary Care

Doctor of Philosophy

Morag J. Alexander, BSc, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "The Role of the Presenilin Protein in Protein Processing and Glycosylation"
Nagi M. Al-Fadaly, MBBCh, MSc (Egypt), Egypt
For a Thesis entitled "Identification and recovery of assailant DNA in sexual assaults"
In Abs Christine Bonnesen, MSc (Denmark), Denmark
For a Thesis entitled "The Anticarcinogenic Effects of Natural Indoles and Isothiocyanates in Human Colon Cells"
Simon A. Chanas, BSc, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "The Induction of Drug Detoxification and Antioxidant Enzymes in Response to Xenobiotics by Transcription Factor Nrf2"
Morag M. Curnow, BDS (Edinburgh), Caputh,
For a Thesis entitled "Dental Care Provision for High Caries Risk Children"
Khalid Elherik, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Vascular tone and endothelial function: effects of circadian, seasonal and dietary variation"
Tarek A. Emam, MBChB, MCh (Egypt), Egypt
For a Thesis entitled "Ergonomic Principles in Laparoscopic Surgery"
Jennifer A. Fraser, BSc (Aberdeen), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Molecular Characterisation of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase from Drosophila melanogaster"
Lay-Beng Goh, BSc, MSc (Singapore), Singapore
For a Thesis entitled "Establishment and Characterisations of Mammalian Cellular Models for Drug Transport by MDR1, OATP-A and OATP-C"
Karen Hamilton, MSc (Edinburgh), Dumfries
For a Thesis entitled "Outcomes in Neonatal Care - A Prospective Evaluation of the Delivery of Care in UK Neonatal Units"
Mohammed A. Jahan, MBChB, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Fluorescence Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Neoplasia"
Ian R. Jowsey, BSc (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Mammalian Class Sigma Glutathione S-Transferases: Catalytic Properties and Physiological Functions"
Petra Kliempt, BSc (Open), MPH, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Developing a Methodology for the Identification and Selection of Outcome Measures for Use in Older People Living in the Community"
In Abs Grant T. McIntyre, BDS (Glasgow), Blairgowrie
For a Thesis entitled "An Investigation of the Craniofacial Skeletal Morphology in the Parents of Children with Orofacial Clefting using Posteroanterior Cephalometry"
Michaelina Macluskey, BDS, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Disease Progression in the Oral Mucosa"
Massaud S. Maamar, BSc, MSc (Libya), Libya
For a Thesis entitled "Isolation, Purification and Characterisation of Some Cerastes cerastes Venom Components"
Varrie C. Ogilvie, BSc (Glasgow), Aberdeen
For a Thesis entitled "Characterisation and Molecular Interactions of the Human 'DEAD-box' Protein, p 72"
In Abs Audrey C. O'Sullivan, BA (Trinity College Dublin), Republic of Ireland
For a Thesis entitled "The Distribution of the RNA Polymerase I Transcription Machinery on the Vertebrate rDNA Repeat in Vivo"
Dianne R. Peden, BSc (Strathclyde), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "The Interaction of General Anaesthetics with GABA-Gated Chloride Channels"
Sinead M. Rhodes, BA, MLitt (Dublin), Dunfermline
For a Thesis entitled "The neuropsychopharmacology of Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD)"
Deborah A. Robertson, BSc, Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide Synthase Induction in Rat Lymphatic and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Culture"
In Abs Neil A. Shearing, MSc (USA), Newton Abbot
For a Thesis entitled "The Importance of Transcription Factor Binding Sites and Methylation Status in Regulating Differential GSTP1 Expression in Drug Resistant and Drug Sensitive Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Lines"
Cara M. Slattery, BA (Trinity College Dublin), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Regulation of the Rat Aflatoxin B1 Aldehyde Reductase Gene by Cancer Chemopreventive Agents"
In Abs Matthew G. Soars, BSc (Warwick), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Prediction of Drug Glucuronidation in Man"
Kirsten Stafford, BSc, London
For a Thesis entitled "Blood Glucose Regulation and Leptin"
In Abs Emma L. Stanley, BSc (Liverpool), Wirral
For a Thesis entitled "Expression and Function of Iodothyronine Metabolising Enzymes During Human Placental and Fetal Development" Gail V. Topping, BMSc, BDS, MPH, Newport on Tay
For a Thesis entitled "Secondary Caries Misdiagnosis: An in vitro study in premolar and molar teeth restored with amalgam and conjoint analysis of patients' and dentists' preferences for attributes of a caries diagnosis device"
Manus Ward, BSc (Ulster), Dromore
For a Thesis entitled "Mitochondrial Membrane Potentials and Glutamate Excitotoxicity in Cerebellar Granule Cells"
Gayathri D. Warnasuriya, MSc (London), London
For a Thesis entitled "Mechanism of Nephrocarcinogenicity of a short-chain chlorinated paraffin, Chlorowax 500C in male Fischer - 344 rats"

Doctor of Medicine

Juma K. Al-Kaabi, MBChB, Oman
For a Thesis entitled "The Prevalance of Macrovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis"
In Abs Sameh A. El-Sallakh, MBChB (Egypt), Egypt
For a Thesis entitled "Gait Analysis Assessment of Total Knee Arthroplasty"
Laura A. Graham, MBChB, Newcastle Upon Tyne
For a Thesis entitled "Diagnosing Vasovagal Syncope"
Jean Ker, BSc (St. Andrews), MBChB (Manchester), Cupar
For a Thesis entitled "Development of an Instrument to Assess Professionalism - the Reflective Ability of Medical Students in an Outcome Based Curriculum"
Samy Mohamed, MBChB (Egypt), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Photodynamic Detection of Early Gastrointestinal Cancer"
Xowi Mwimbi, MBChB (Zambia), Dundee
For a Thesis entitled "Towards a Better Understanding of the Role of Protein Kinase C in the Regulation of Ciliary Beat Frequency"

Faculty of Duncan of Jordanstone

Bachelor of Architecture

First Class Honours
Pamela Hill, BSc, Motherwell
Neil R. Rankin, BSc, Forfar

Second Class Honours

(Division I)
Joanna E. Blair, BSc, Gorebridge
Scott G. Donald, BSc, Forfar
Peter J. Elder, BSc, Blairgowriev Lorne Haycock, BSc, Dundee
Justin Kinsella, BSc, Republic of Ireland
Garreth M. McMahon, Bsc, Dungannon
Jennifer E. Millar, BSc, Ballyclare
David J. Milton, BSc, Dundee
Paul Moffat, BSc, Erskine
Fiona Mullan, BSc, Omagh

Second Class Honours

(Division II)
Stephen D. Ball, BSc, Londonderry
Samuel A. Foster, Arisaig
Kieran Gleeson, BSc, Republic of Ireland
Niamh A. Hegarty, BSc, Londonderry
Bryan P. Johnston, BSc, Republic of Ireland
In Abs Keith Jones, BSc, Buckley
John Kelly, BSc, Republic of Ireland
John P. Kelly, BSc, Republic of Ireland
Catherine A. Marsden, BSc, Newtownards
Stephen D. Miskelly, BSc, Downpatrick
Eimear C. O'Riordan, BSc, Republic of Ireland
Jon D. Parry, BSc, Dundee
Mark Walker, BSc, Dundee
Graham Whitters, BSc, Glasgow
William P. Wilson, BSc, Armagh

Third Class Honours

Steven J. Cromb, BSc, Dundee
Ken W. Lee, BSc, Cowdenbeath

Bachelor of Science in Architecture
Adamu A. Abdullahi, Nigeria
Pamela Astley, Dundee
Sandra Boardman, Republic of Ireland
Alan Brown, Dunfermline
Michael Brown, Kirkcaldy
Ryan Cathro, Dundee
Neil Cruickshank, Dundee
Joseph B. Fairbairn, Ballymena
Lynne Fenton, Monifieth
Alastair J. Fitchet, Dundee
Brett Foster, Glenrothes
In Abs Evgenia Giatili, Greece
Janice Hay, Carnoustie
Niall Hedderman, Republic of Ireland
Andrew P. Hudson, Leeds
In Abs Sandy Ip, Dunfermline
Peter A. Kelly, Bathgate
Claire Long, Cookstown
Emma McCrea, Limavaday
Grant MacDonald, Rosewell
Alison R. McKee, Lisburn
Laurie S. Mackintosh, Glasgow
Aidan F. McMahon, Dungannon
Kirsteen L. McNee, Helensburgh
In Abs Rosina Martin, Dundee
Joseph E. Narsapur, Dundee
Laura Newall, Ayr
Amanda Nioi, Glenrothes
In Abs Benjamin J. Pickersgill, Ripon
Andrew J. Perrie, Bonnyrigg
Nametsegang Phoga, Botswana
In Abs Cameron Queen, Blairgowrie
In Abs Ciara Reddy, Republic of Ireland
In Abs Moira G. Tully, Republic of Ireland
Peter B. Walker, Eyemouth
Fraser J. Walsh, Broxburn
Claire L. Whyte, Dundee
Laurence Wood, Grangemouth

Bachelor of Arts (Fine Art)

First Class Honours

Ellen Munro, Montrose Printmaking
Patricia Rorie, Dundee Drawing & Painting
Colin J. Russell, Peebles Printmaking
Andrew O. Slater, Dalkeith Drawing & Painting
Matthew T. Vickery, Holsworthy Time Based Art
John M. Whittle, Morpeth Sculpture

Second Class Honours

(Division I)

In Abs Jenny Barker, Kirkcaldy Drawing & Painting
Sheena Beaton, Castlebay Printmaking
Judith H. Bennett, Dundee Time Based Art
Louise Briggs, Carlisle Sculpture
Rhiannon Campbell, Inverurie Printmaking
Elaine S. Cunningham, Forfar Drawing & Painting
Jack Figgis, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne Drawing & Painting
Christopher Foy, Leven Drawing & Painting
Dawn M. Fraser, Montrose Sculpture
Charlotte M. Gerrard, Edinburgh Sculpture
Nicola R. Haig, Kyle Time Based Art
Finlay J. Hogg, Dundee Time Based Art
Pauline A. Hynd, Dundee Sculpture
Caroline F. Jamieson, Glenrothes Sculpture
Peter G. Keith, Edinburgh Time Based Art
Andrew P. Kinnear, Dundee Drawing & Painting
Marie-Lise R. Laviolette, Dundee Printmaking
Amy Marletta, Dundee Time Based Art
Stacey A. Matthew, Burntisland Drawing & Painting
Selena Mowat, Forres Drawing & Painting
Kevin A. Reid, Dundee Time Based Art
Matthew V. Rowley, Dundee Drawing & Painting
Emma St John, Motherwell Printmaking
In Abs Shona Suttie, Dundee Drawing & Painting
Caroline M. Thomas, Edinburgh Drawing & Painting
Athol G. Whitmore, Forfar Time Based Art
In Abs Roberta J. Winnett, Wigan Drawing & Painting
Tack Woo, Korea Time Based Art

Second Class Honours

(Division II)

Debbie Bowden, Witney Printmaking
Jonathan A. Brown, Edinburgh Drawing & Painting
Fiona E. Clark, Kirriemuir Drawing & Painting
Stuart C. Clift, Blairgowrie Drawing & Painting
Susan L. Craib, Dollar Printmaking
Richie Cumming, Prestwick Drawing & Painting
Fraser Douglas, Kinross Drawing & Painting
Simon M. Dwyer, Dundee Drawing & Painting
Lee-Anne Ewing, Edinburgh Drawing & Painting
Rebecca M. Ford, Glasgow Sculpture
Ryan R. Hannigan, Dundee Sculpture
Stephen G. Henderson, Dundee Time Based Art
Gordon H. McDougal, Haddington Printmaking
Aileen M. McGibbon, Millport Drawing & Painting
Brian Malloch, Kirkcaldy Drawing & Painting
Sally A. May, Newbridge Printmaking
Thomas Mountford, Aberdeen Drawing & Painting
In Abs Patrick Nelis, Dunkeld Printmaking
Helen E. Platt, Blairgowrie Printmaking
Jean C. Richardson, Glasgow Drawing & Painting
In Abs Rabia Saleem, Dundee Printmaking
In Abs Kaye L. Symington, South Shields Drawing & Painting

Third Class Honours

Kirsten F. Cathro, Carnoustie Time Based Art
Edmund G. Coleman, Greenock Drawing & Painting
Alan R. Foy, Glenrothes Drawing & Painting
Gavin Leitch, Glenrothes Drawing & Painting
Stephen A. Mason, Glasgow Time Based Art
In Abs Gillian Murdach, Dundee Printmaking
Julie Uprichard, Newtonards Time Based Art

Bachelor of Arts (Fine Art)

In Abs Hye-Ryoung Cho, Korea
Yu M. Choi, Korea
In Abs Abigail E. Jackson, Dundee
Haeng J. Jeon, Korea
Hannah L. Kimber, Fort William
In Abs Han K. Lim, Korea

Bachelor of Design

First Class Honours

Laura Ballantine, Dundee Printed Textiles
Jennifer Bruce, Dunblane Jewellery and Metalwork
Ruth J. Chalmers, Dundee Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Emma L. Crabbe, Banff Illustration and Printmaking
In Abs Kati Dudgeon, Aberfeldy Illustration and Printmaking
Lindsey C. Gibbins, Peterhead Constructed Textiles
Jill L. Hastie, Brechin Jewellery and Metalwork
Anna Henderson, Falkland Constructed Textiles
In Abs Gary W. Horton, Bridge of Weir Graphic Design
Stacey Hunter, Glasgow Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Stephen Kane, Glasgow Graphic Design
Esther J. Kent, Duns Illustration and Printmaking
Cara-Louise McCluskey, Carnoustie Printed Textiles
Laura J. Mitchell, Leven Printed Textiles
In Abs Elizabeth A. Myhill, Isle of Skye Illustration and Printmaking
Jennifer C. Steele, Edinburgh Constructed Textiles
Melissa A. Taylor, Newport-on-Tay Printed Textiles
In Abs Paul D. Travers, Glasgow Interior and Environmental Design
In Abs Edward I. Walker, Largs Graphic Design
Pauline Wickens, Dundee Printed Textiles

Second Class Honours

(Division I)

Evelyn J. Abernethy, Glasgow Interior and Environmental Design
In Abs Keith Arnott, Monifieth Graphic Design
In Abs Gillian Barrie, Cupar Illustration and Printmaking
Antonia V. Baxter, Aberdeen Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Andrew H. Bell, Leven Interior and Environmental Design
Sarah L. Bloom, Liversedge Ceramics
In Abs Fiona S. Brown, Kirkcaldy Illustration and Printmaking
Claire E. Brown, Perth Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Karen Butcher, Mayboyle Graphic Design
In Abs Fraser R. Byars, Forfar Graphic Design
Sarah L. Cardwell, Dungannon Constructed Textiles
In Abs Sara M. Cordiner, Peterhead Illustration and Printmaking
In Abs Natalie Cowx, Forfar Graphic Design
In Abs Nichola Coyle, Edinburgh Illustration and Printmaking
Rowan Dewar, Edinburgh Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs Gemma Dominick, Dundee Graphic Design
In Abs John W. Donachie, Dundee Graphic Design
Fiona A. Farmer, Dunfermline Jewellery and Metalwork
Ruaraidh Gillies, Isle of Skye Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs Graeme D. Haig, Kennoway Graphic Design
Fiona M. Hislop, Glasgow Animation and Electronic Media
Nichola Hope, Perth Constructed Textiles
Anthony Imrie, Chorley Graphic Design
In Abs Jung-Won Kim, Korea Graphic Design
In Abs Ellen M. Kirkhope, Newburgh Graphic Design
Jane E. Lavery, Craigavon Constructed Textiles
Kyung Hwa H. Lee, Korea Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs Nadia Lucchesi, Galston Illustration and Printmaking
Pauline J. McCloy, Wishaw Interior and Environmental Design
In Abs David A. McCue, Glasgow Animation and Electronic Media
Susan M. MacDonald, Montrose Constructed Textiles
Alan J. MacEachern, Isle of Skye Animation and Electronic Media
Lillian J. MacKey, Crumlin Printed Textiles
Tracy MacLean, Leven Printed Textiles
Rebecca M. Mills, Coldstream Jewellery and Metalwork
Phillip R. Molloy, Solihull Animation and Electronic Media
Gemma F. Nelson, Arbroath Ceramics
Marysia Oszczypala, Cumnock Ceramics
In Abs Christopher Phin, Castle Douglas Graphic Design
In Abs Andrew D. Robertson, Dunfermline Graphic Design
Ingrid Sellars, Glasgow Jewellery and Metalwork
Steven M. Sievwright, Dundee Printed Textiles
In Abs Hayley F. Smail, Montrose Illustration and Printmaking
Erica J. Thomson, Shetland Interior and Environmental Design
Lynne Turner, Ferryhill Ceramics
Kirstin Watters, Glasgow Printed Textiles
Keith Wooldridge, Dundee
In Abs Daniel T. Woodford, Perth Interior and Environmental Design

Second Class Honours

(Division II)

John E. Anderson, Jarrow Animation and Electronic Media
Lindsay Beattie, Dundee Jewellery and Metalwork
Claire E. Bell, Glenrothes Printed Textiles
In Abs Neil A. Bond, Richmond Animation and Electronic Media
Michelle L. Cairnie, Dundee Printed Textiles
Calum Carr, Inverness Illustration and Printmaking
John E. Cooper, Spean Bridge Illustration and Printmaking
In Abs Linda-Jane Coote, Dungannon Illustration and Printmaking
Jennifer Crow, Stirling Illustration and Printmaking
Celia Dick, Birnam Jewellery and Metalwork
Elizabeth K. Donald, Dundee Constructed Textiles
Laila Duncan, Spean Bridge Constructed Textiles
Helen M. Gallogly, Bedford Constructed Textiles
Clare E. Gomm, Norwich Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs Paul Hastings, Dumfries Graphic Design
Graeme N. Hawkins KIngskettle Animation and Electronic Media
Susan E. Hay, Dalgety Bay Jewellery and Metalwork
Victoria J. Hodgson, Huddersfield Ceramics
Graham Jones, Kilmarnock Printed Textiles
Victoria H. Kinvig, Rickmansworth Constructed Textiles
Nicholas Lennox, Leven Animation and Electronic Media
Sarah McPake, Glasgow Ceramics
Jennifer E. McRobbie, Dundee Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Jamie Malcolm, Dunfermline Graphic Design
Samantha J. Milliken, Australia Ceramics
Kate Mundie, Edinburgh Constructed Textiles
Lee Munro, Perth Illustration and Printmaking
Louisa Ratana-Arporn, Aberdeen Interior and Environmental Design
Mhairi J. Scorgie, Arbroath Ceramics
In Abs Claire L. Starr, Guernsey Jewellery and Metalwork
Carol Stevenson, Dumbarton Animation and Electronic Media
Ian M. Stewart, Campbeltown Printed Textiles
Bruce H. Sutherland, Kilmarnock Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs John Sutherland, Roy Bridge Illustration and Printmaking
In Abs Rachel J. Swinley, Carnoustie Illustration and Printmaking
Heather Watt, Glasgow Constructed Textiles
In Abs Lisa C. Williamson, Kilmarnock Graphic Design

Third Class Honours

Dawn A. Davie, East Wemyss Jewellery and Metalwork
Nicholas A. Evans, Newcastle upon Tyne Animation and Electronic Media
In Abs Mairi Goldthorp, Carnoustie Jewellery and Metalwork
In Abs Nicola Grubb, Leven Illustration and Printmaking
Joanna L. Hardie, Perth Constructed Textiles
Julie A. Moore, Dingwall Interior and Environmental Design
Kirstin Sands, Aberdeen Interior and Environmental Design
In Abs David S. Taylor, Dundee Illustration and Printmaking
Andrew M. Titterington, Stirling Printed Textiles

Bachelor of Design

In Abs Lesley D. Cormie, Glenrothes
Joseph M. Denny, Belfast
Scott A. Francis, Dundee
In Abs Hyo-Jin Kim, Korea
Jung H. Kim, Korea
Tai K. Lee, Korea
Alasdair J. McCrum, Kirriemuir

Master of Arts in Food and Welfare Studies

First Class Honours

Melissa J. Donnovan, Alnwick
Susan Gray, Dundee
Shiona M. Tasker, Dundee

Second Class Honours

(Division I)

Emily M. Alexander, Northallerton
Claire Bennett, Cumnock
Jennifer Bruce, Strabane
Nuala M. Good, Craigavon
Julie Johnston, Dundee
Alison McCarron, Omagh

Second Class Honours

(Division II)

Sarah E. Bennett, Northwich
Alison L. Crawford, Augher
Alison G. Guest, Dundee
Lynn McClelland, Larne
Astrid Toner, Republic of Ireland

Master of Arts in Food and Welfare Studies

Helen Breen, Dundee, with Distinction
In Abs Angela Hutchison, Comrie, with Distinction
Jill A. McDonald, Dundee, with Distinction
Linda McIntosh, Dundee, with Distinction
Rosanna Colautti, Dundee
In Abs Ann H. Evans, Monifieth
Graeme T. Ford, Dundee
Zoey Keenan, Pearsie
Erin L. Woods, Dundee

Master of Arts in Hotel and Catering Management

First Class Honours

Marie A. Emslie, York
Julie Rutledge, Enniskillen

Second Class Honours

(Division I)

Fiona M. Badger, Glasgow
Emily M. Birtles, Doncaster
Kate E. Ferguson, Stirling
Paula Jamieson, Montrose
Gayle Johnstone, Lanark
Rebecca L. Nurse, Bexley
Charlotte A. Sadler, Carlisle
Deborah A. White, Monifieth
Catherine E. Whittaker, Kirkliston
Kate E. Wilkinson, Fairford

Second Class Honours

(Division II)

Reshma Karia, Sheffield
Evelyn E. Kenwell, Omagh
Faith M. McElrea, Strabane
Fiona J. MacFarlane, Glasgow
Murray J. MacLean, Inverness
Enrica Murray, Antrim

Third Class Honours

Sandra P. Ng, Dundee
Spiros Vogiajoglou, Greece

Master of Arts in Hotel and Catering Management

In Abs Robert J. Wormall, Ibstock, with Distinction
Sarah Shek, Kirriemuir, with Distinction
Victoria A. Barnwell, Arbroath
Grainne K. Barry, Carnoustie
Winnie M. Cheung, Tayport
Clare L. Colvin, Dundee
Bernard F. Gallagher, Newtownabbey
M. Linda Gray, Dundee
In Abs David R. Greig, Dundee
Darren Hazlie, Dungannon
Nicholas P. Hopkinson, Grantham
Anthony Horan, Arbroath
Christina M. Lorenz, Germany
Daniel J. McCurdy, Edinburgh
Maki Nosaka, Japan
Stuart A. Ogg, Dundee
Michelle Patterson, Dundee
Laura J. Prentice, Glasgow
Stephen R. Shand, Falkland
Sarah I. Stark, Cupar

Certificate of Higher Education

Heather M. Capper, Craigavon
Alison Duncan, Cupar
Dong G. Kang, Korea
Alan J. Lesslie, Dundee
Choi K. Lui, Hong Kong
Jody Mead, Dundee
Natalie A. Merritt, Inverurie
Carolanne McHale, Cowdenbeath
Leslie A. Ostick, Dunfermline
Natalie J. Peden, Edinburgh
Helen L. Petrie, Elgin
In Abs Julia Selbie, Methil
Robin Shek, Forfar
Amy slorach, Glasgow

Diploma of Higher Education

Melanie L. Byrne, Perth
James R. Dinning, Kilmarnock
Jane M. Foxall, Cupar
Claire McCombie, Kirriemuir
In Abs Barry McKnight, Republic of Ireland
Andrew Mann, Arbroath
Morgan L. Robinson, Edinburgh

Master of Business Administration

Ranji Dhillon, LLB, Rugby, with Distinction
Stuart D. Adams, BA (Robert Gordons), Arbroath
Bakhytzhan Akhmetov, Kazakhstan
Abdullahi Alao, BA (Nottingham), London
Alice Braimoh, BSc (Nigeria), Eastbourne
John A. Crowe, Dundee
Ghias-ud Din, Dundee
Audrey E. Judge, Perth
Elaine Leong, BA (Singapore), Dundee
Robert Moodie, Denny
Deborah S. Morgan, Murthly
In Abs Mazin Atique-ur-Rahman, Saudia Arabia
Yeltinzhal Turganaliyev, Kazakhstan

Master of Design

Elaine E. Butler, Laurencekirk, with Distinction
Sarah Collins, Halifax
Mark W. Friars, Dundee
John McGlynn, Glasgow
Collins A. Mdachi, Milnathort
Jue Yu, Dundee

Master of Fine Art

John P. Carroll, BA, Greenock
In Abs Sharon Gallagher, BA (Northumbria), Edinburgh
In Abs Donald I. McKenzie, Dundee
In Abs Gareth H. Moonie, Inverness
Katrina Newell, BA (Ulster), Annalong
In Abs Joydip Sengupta, BA, MFA (India), India
In Abs Jane Sharkey, BA, Dundee
Alison M. Tracey, Republic of Ireland

Master of Science

Eric G. Dunlop, MA (Aberdeen), Newport-on-Tay, in Electronic Imaging, with Distinction
Riccardo A. Iacono, BA (Glasgow), Dundee, in Electronic Imaging, with Distinction
Ruth B. Levene, BA (Hull), Hull, in Electronic Imaging, with Distinction
In Abs Daniel A. Norton, BA (Glasgow), Dundee, in Electronic Imaging, with Distinction
Janice P. Aitken, BA, Dundee, in Electronic Imaging
Eimer L. Birkbeck, Edinburgh, in Electronic Imaging
Pol Clementsmith, Dundee, in Electronic Imaging
Catriona Grant, Edinburgh, in Electronic Imaging
Morgan Petrie, Glasgow, in Electronic Imaging
Joy Richard, BSc (USA), USA, in Computer Aided Architectural Design
Simon G. Richardson, Glasgow, in Electronic Imaging
Pu Shen, BA (China), China, in Electronic Imaging

Doctor of Philosophy

In Abs Yi-Chun Fu, MDes, Taiwan
For a Thesis entitled "Taiwanese Corporate Identity A Study of the Development of Corporate Identity on Taiwan"
In Abs Simon D. Yuill, MA (Edinburgh), Edinburgh
For a Thesis entitled "Image.Building.Word: A Study of the Digital Artifact"

Honorary Degrees

The degree of Doctor of Laws will be conferred upon:
Honorary Graduand Presenter
Dr Bonnie J Dunbar Professor Sir David Lane
Mr Herbert Haxton Professor D McDevitt
Professor David Mach Professor A Robb
Mr Robert Seaton Professor D B Swinfen

The Following Postgraduate Certificates and Diplomas Have Been Awarded

Certificate in Medical Education

Richard Ayres, MBChB (Edinburgh), Barnstaple
Bharat Bassaw, MBBS (Jamaica), MPhil (Trinidad), Trinidad
Brian A. Catto, MD (USA), USA
Alan Copsey, MBBS (London), West Sussex
Frances C. Forrest, MBBS (London), Bristol
Sarah J. Hands, MBBS (London), MMedSci (Birmingham), Stafford
Jolanta Karpinski, MD (Canada), Canada
Farahnaz Khan, MBBS (Pakistan), Pakistan
Katherine J. King, MBBS (London), Warwickshire
Adam Kuuba, MBChB, MD (Glasgow), London
Nicola L. Lewis, BMedSci, BMBS (Nottingham), London
Declan J. O'Brien, MBChB (Liverpool), Hereford
Halia O'Shea, MBBS (Australia), Edinburgh
Doris Ostergaard, MD (Denmark), Denmark
Sheridan G. Rees, MBBS (London), Cheltenham
Surachai Saranritthichai, DM (Thailand), Thailand
Victor Schrieber, MBBS (London), Kidderminster
Janet Skinner, MBChB (Edinburgh), Edinburgh
Joaquim E. Vieira, MD, BSc, PhD (Brazil), Brazil
Evangeline Wassamer Satodia, MSc (Birmingham), Canada
Colin M. Wasson, BSc (St Andrews), MBChB (Manchester), Cheshire
Mark Waters, BM (Southampton), Hereford
Deborah J. Wellings, MBChB (Birmingham), Coventry
Andrew B. Whitehouse, MA, MBChB (Cambridge), Warwickshire
Ahmad T. Zamzuri, BDS (Malaya), MSc (London), Malaysia

Certificate in Nursing

Malia G. Haglund, USA
Certificate of Nursing (Palliative Care)
Gillian Booth, Chelmsford

Diploma in Advanced Nursing Studies
Carol Bullock, Kent

Diploma in Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapy
Morag Brown, Caithness, with Distinction
Colin Farquharson, Montrose, with Distinction
Gwen H. Mitchell, Aberdeen, with Distinction
Anne Buchanan, Rutherglen
Patricia Cawthorne, Port Glasgow
Norma J. Cruickshank, Carluke
Kirsty A. Halliday, Dunning
Janice A. Gray, Aberdeen
Pamela Henderson, Strathaven
Veronica Lynch, Glasgow
Emma L. Macrae, Inverness
Fiona McAlinden, Beauly
Sheila W. McMonagle, Oban
Hazel E. Marsden, Perthshire
Vicky J. Orme, Dundee
Margaret A. Rowley, Coatbridge
Wendy A. Rigley, Glasgow
Helen G. Walker, Biggar

Diploma in Electronic Imaging
Scott W. Tait, BA, Perth

Diploma in Environmental Health
Muhammed Saho, Gambia
Diploma in Management
Margaret H. Adamson, LLB, DLP (Aberdeen), Dundee
Roy S. Boyington, Immingham
Mateen H. Rathore, Pakistan

Diploma in Medical Education
Nadia M. Alwardy, BSc, PhD (Glasgow), Dundee
Rajin Arora, MD (Thailand), Thailand
Lubna A. Baig, MBBS (Pakistan), MPH (USA), Pakistan
Charles R. Baranga, PhD (Glasgow), Dundee
Andrew S. Bartlam, MBChB (Manchester), Staffordshire
Pranom Buppasiri, MD (Thailand), Thailand
Uwimana C. Butare, MSc (London), Dundee
Kevin Cassar, MD (Malta), Aberdeen
Annegret H. Dahlmann, MD (Germany), London
Alan C. Dellow, MBBS (London), Amersham
Angela Evans, Stoke-on-Trent
David Fairholm, MD (Canada), Canada
Carol A. Gray, BSc, MBBS (London), Stoke-on-Trent
Linda E. Hanai, Dundee
Michael F. Harris, MBBS (London), Bath
Andrew B. Hassell, MBChB, MD (Manchester), Staffordshire
Miles C. Holt, BM (Southampton), Warwickshire
Willian T. Irish, BSc (London), MBBCh (Cambridge), Bath
Simon D. Jackson, MD (Canada), Dundee
Ellen F. Jones, MBChB (Birmingham), Birmingham
Josaphat J. Kabukoba MD (Tanzania), Birmingham
Maureen E. Kelly, MBChB (Ireland), Republic of Ireland
Paschazia Mukashumbusho, Dundee
Elizabeth J. Muller, MBChB (South Africa), Staffordshire
Anne M. Mulrooney, MBBCh (Ireland), Republic of Ireland
Lameck Y. Nayingo, Dundee
Simon Quantrill, MBChB (Manchester), London
Patricia M. Scriven, MBChB (Manchester), Birmingham
Usa Siriboonrit, BSc, MD (Thailand), Thailand
Derek J. Smith, BSc (London), Gwent
Helen Thorley, MBBS (London), Shropshire
Chusak Uewichitrapochana, BSc, MD (Thailand), Thailand
Pisit Wattanaruangkowit, MD (Thailand), Dundee
Laurence E. Wood, MBChB (Liverpool), Coventry

Diploma in Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Technology
Nichola J. Cameron, Melrose
Richard A. Greenwood, New Zealand
Mary M. McDermott, Bo'Ness
Amitava N. Mukherjee, India
Mariana A. Toleva, UAE

Diploma in Palliative Care

Aileen Collier, Dunfermline

Diploma in Public Health
Ingrid Burger, Perth

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Dr Jayne Donegan : My General Medical Council Hell . . .


GP & Homoeopath with a special interest in vaccination, promoting health and practical and supportive treatment of childhood and adult infectious diseases and other illnesses

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My Experience with the General Medical Council

“Vaccination has been the most important health advance in the twentieth century and will continue this role into the twenty first as new vaccines are found for an increasing range of disease conditions.”

This is the mantra which is quoted with unceasing enthusiasm by the medical profession and policy makers. As a doctor of 24 years (I qualified in Medicine at St Mary’s Hospital Medical School, London in 1983) and a GP, it used to be my opinion also. I was a strong supporter of the National Childhood Vaccination Program. In the 1980s I counselled numerous parents who were worried about side effects associated with the whooping cough (Pertussis) vaccine. I acknowledged that there were side effects associated with this vaccine but that as doctors, were taught that adverse reactions were an order of ten less than the risks associated with catching the disease and that – essentially – having the vaccine would stop children catching the disease.

In common with many doctors and health professionals, I regarded parents who did not want to vaccinate their children as misguided and socially irresponsible to the extent that I unquestioningly had my children (born 1991 & 1993) vaccinated with all the childhood vaccines then recommended (DTP Polio Hib) up to and including MMR – I allowed my elder child to be given out-of-date BCG vaccine, having been reassured by the Community health doctor that it was quite safe (she had an extremely severe reaction to it).

I started studying homoeopathy in 1990 and even this did not dampen my enthusiasm, in a way, vaccination seemed to me to be a bit like homoeopathy – give a small dose of some thing and it makes you ‘immune.’

I even knew a few doctors who thought that vaccination was problematic (and fluoride, and aspartame) and I thought that they were, to be frank, ‘bonkers’.

Nonetheless, I have always tried to be a 'thinking' doctor and to make my own evaluation of the data presented to me. So when the Government decided to vaccinate seven million school children with the measles and rubella vaccine, the Measles Rubella Campaign of 1994, I carefully read the information that was provided.

The Department of Health told us that there was to be measles epidemic, although they did not supply any published references to support this claim. When the measles vaccine was introduced in the UK in 1968, as it was a vaccine containing a live virus, doctors were told that it would mimic infection with the wild virus and so only one shot would protect children for life. In 1994, we were informed that children who had had only one dose of measles vaccine were not necessarily going to be protected and so they would need a booster. I did not find this too disturbing, as it is not said that vaccines are 100 per cent effective. However I became more concerned when we were told that children who had had two doses of the measles vaccine would not necessarily be protected when the epidemic came.

When the MMR vaccine was introduced in 1988, many children had already had the single measles vaccine and doctors were advised to vaccinate them with the MMR nonetheless, supposedly to make them immune to mumps and rubella and to boost their measles immunity. Now with a predicted epidemic on the way we were told that that these two doses would be insufficient. So I had been telling parents that there were side effects associated with vaccines but that they would basically protect their children against the diseases but now, it seemed, that this was not the actually the case, even with TWO doses of what was then regarded as a one dose vaccine. And, after all, what is the point of a vaccine if it only 'protects' the individual when there are no cases of the disease around?

Another factor that I found disturbing was that we were told that the best way to vaccinate was en masse because this would break the chain of transmission. I therefore wondered why babies are vaccinated at the age of two months – wouldn’t it, by the same logic, make more sense to vaccinate all unvaccinated children every two years and break the chain of transmission?

These inconsistencies in the information sent out by the Department of Health lead me to start my own independent research into the subject.

As questioning vaccination was a process that, in effect, called into question much of what I had been taught as a medical student and a doctor, I did not rely on what can loosely be called, 'anti-vaccination' books. I went to the Office for National Statistics in Pimlico and got out all the dusty old books from when public records began to be kept in 1837 and wrote down the mortality figures for the diseases against which we vaccinate. I had to bring my then four and three year old daughters with me. The librarians were very kind and tolerant. They even put out jugs of orange juice for them! Thankfully there is a CDROM available for deaths from 1900 which I bought so that I could continue my research at home. I prefer to use death rates rather than disease incidence as we doctors are not that good at diagnosing infectious diseases with any accuracy. The reported incidence depends on many factors, not least changes in diagnostic criteria, vaccination status and how much publicity a disease has been given at the time in question. When it comes to death, we are able to diagnose it most of the time, and sometimes we even manage to get the cause right as well!

I was shocked to discover that vaccines hadn’t made the great impact that I had been lead to believe on people’s health, usually with graphs starting a few years before the vaccines were introduced; instead of showing the figures from fifty or a hundred years before, when you would see that 95-99% of the reduction in deaths from, for example, measles and whooping cough had already occurred before the vaccines were introduced.

I approached the vaccination issue anew, my interest in the subject fuelled by my concern for child health safety. I continued my reading of refereed scientific and medical journals, but with a new and more critical eye. I soon began to realise that what is held up as 'science' is not a truthful quest for knowledge on an even playing field, quite the contrary, you get the science you pay for. This is how it works: first of all you have to get someone to pay for your study – so it has to be on a subject they like. Then you have to produce results that they like – or the results may be canned and never see the light of day. Then you have to get a journal to publish it – which they won’t if it seems contrary to what they regard as appropriate, and then it has to get through the review by the referees – people who work in the field in which your study/ paper deals and who do not like what does not support the status quo, depending on the strength of the status quo, and vaccination is a very strong one.

Some studies get published by means of tweaking their conclusions for example, in an outbreak of paralytic polio in Oman in 1988-9 that started shortly after (they say 'despite') an immunisation program that raised the coverage with three doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) from 67% to 87% in twelve month old children (hint, oral live polio vaccine can give you polio). They actually state that the outbreak occurred, “in the face of a model immunisation ” and that “the region with the highest attack rate (paralytic polio) had one of the highest coverage rates (vaccination) whereas the region with the lowest coverage (vaccination) had the lowest attack rate (paralytic),”and that there was “no correlation between vaccine coverage rates and attack rates by region”. This means that those in highly vaccinated areas were no more protected than those in less vaccinated areas. By the time they get to the concluding paragraph, however, the authors are calling for more vaccines in the schedule, more mass campaigns, new vaccines despite the fact that the one used was found to be of its usual efficacy and so on, and let's face it, what is the point of a vaccine if it doesn't protect you when there is an epidemic? (Sutter RW Patriarca PA, Brogan S, Malankar PG, Outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis in Oman: evidence of widespread transmission among fully vaccinated children, Lancet 1991;338:715-20.)

This is how you get papers published. So the ‘science’ that we all look up to and the ‘scientists’ that we all trust are made up of nothing more than people who are trying to make a living and pay their mortgages - you get the science you pay for and he who pays the piper calls the tune.

To find out about many issues in medicine, education, social policy today, you have to delve deeper. You have to carefully sift through papers, looking at the methods, results and forms of statistical analysis, not just the conclusion - not all of them are handed to you on a plate like that the one above. You also need to undertake some from of study of other medical or philosophical disciplines in order to realise that you are not just a little defenceless human surrounded by the myriad of micro-organisms, with which we and the planet swarm, all seeking to kill you, otherwise you just become terrified of the diseases AND the vaccines and do not know where to turn.

The path that I was now taking has led me to completely change how I view health and disease and makes my practice of medicine much richer, empowering and, ultimately, more health giving for my patients – and, of course, myself.

In my own family I wondered how on earth anyone had ever managed to convince me to vaccinate my children against, in particular, measles, mumps and rubella, all of which I and my contemporaries had had as children and which our mothers had considered such a normal part of childhood that if they heard of a child coming down with one of them, they would rush us over to visit them so we could, hopefully, get it too – and even then it didn't always work – you can sleep in the same bed as someone with one of those infections and still not 'catch' it!

The fact that I had so 'stupidly' vaccinated my children also engendered large amounts of guilt. How could I, a supposedly 'well informed' medical professional, have been so dumb? Acknowledging that guilt is not good for anyone's immune system, I set about 'antidoting' all of the vaccines that they, and I, had been given, homoeopathically; made sure that they were given no more; and was careful not to suppress any fevers or mucus discharges (endless snot), to encourage their bodies to undertake their own cleaning-up operation.

I started to write articles for various organisations who give information to parents about vaccination and this led to my being asked by a mother to act as an expert witness in her case. She had been taken to court by the absent father of her child to get a special order from the court to force her daughter to be vaccinated with all of the vaccines in the schedule. Her case was then joined to that of another mother in a similar situation and they were to be heard together.

The mothers had been originally refused public funding by the legal aid board to have an expert as they were told that nobody who was an expert would support their position. However this was overturned by a District Judge who insisted that have one. Medically qualified experts from abroad were disallowed, as were non-medically qualified experts from the UK. Initially I did not want to take on the case as I was under no illusions as to the difficulties involved and of how my expertise would be viewed compared to that of hospital consultants and professors. I also have a very heavy schedule of my own and did not feel that I could put aside the time. Then I realised that if I did not agree to prepare a report, the Court would have no expert giving the opinion that there were other ways of promoting child health than vaccination and no-one to say that this was a reasonable approach, so I agreed to take on the case.

The anonymised transcripts of the proceedings in 2002 and the written reports of Dr Conway and Professor Kroll were released for public use in the GMC hearing.

The expert for the fathers, Dr Stephen Conway, a Consultant Paediatrician and member of the Joint Committee for Vaccination and Immunisation was of the opinion that each of the two girls should both be vaccinated with all the vaccines available, even pertussis vaccine for the nine year old which was not on the recommended schedule of 2002 for that age group. His short report for each child cited no references for his statements regarding either the diseases or their vaccines. Simon Kroll, Professor of Immunology at St Mary's Hospital, advised that every vaccine except pertussis and Hib vaccine in the case of the older child, should be given. If a reduced schedule were more acceptable to the mothers he advised that diphtheria and polio could be omitted. He cited no references nor provided any except for those in his appendix on MMR vaccine, a vaccine which he was very keen should be given.

In both these reports greater claims were made to efficacy and benefits of the vaccines than were justified, whilst downplaying the risks to the individual. Their reports were to a large extent dealing with the concept of 'herd immunity' rather than looking at the best interests of each individual child. Both Dr Conway and Professor Kroll were members of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI, a conflicting interest which was unexplored in the case. Members of the JCVI are unlikely to draw attention to problems with vaccines because they make the recommendations for their use. And if Dr Conway and Professor Kroll were seen to be recommending, on a clinical basis, that vaccination was not necessary at all for individual children, they would be seen to be contradicting government health policy based on JCVI recommendations and acting counter to the policies aimed at achieving what is called ‘herd immunity’. So it is difficult to see how either could reasonably fulfil their briefs without uncritically pursuing the party line on vaccination which is, in fact, just what they did.

This meant that I was presented with answering a one-sided case for vaccinating the two children concerned. The issue before the Court was whether it was in the interests of the two little girls to be or not to be vaccinated, the clinical issues, the risks and benefits, the family, social and psychological aspects. For the most part, the evidence they presented and to which I was retained to reply, was irrelevant and misled the Court as to the issues.

As experts, Dr Conway and Professor Kroll were under a duty to assess independently the data and results presented in medical papers. They instead uncritically accepted the conclusions of the authors of the papers. Neither Dr Conway nor Professor Kroll gave balanced accounts of the risks and benefits of vaccination. Neither dealt properly with the adverse effects of vaccination and the associated problems. Both of their reports dwelt on the potential severity of childhood illnesses and minimised the side-effects of vaccines. Both promoted the health gains of the 20th Century as being due to vaccination. This is a factually unsustainable and erroneous view (despite being a deeply held view throughout the medical profession). Both erred in failing to acknowledge that the improvements in health overall over the last century to date were attributable substantially to factors having little to do with vaccination. Neither supported the view that a well nourished 21st Century child would cope well or easily with previously common childhood diseases. Both Dr Conway and Professor Kroll gave little weight to the ability of a healthy child to be sufficiently nursed through ordinary childhood infectious diseases and there was no consideration regarding any other health promoting measure than vaccination.

The way the cases were presented by Dr Conway and Professor Kroll meant I had to go back to first principles: to the diseases, their ecology, their changes as a result of improvement in public and municipal health, what had happened to their incidence, morbidity and mortality before the vaccines were introduced and after the vaccines were introduced.

In the absence of any clear, open, objective and well designed studies on vaccine safety, I had to present evidence to show that the vaccines are not so safe or effective as Dr Conway and Professor Kroll’s sweeping assertions implied. I specifically did not cite homoeopathic, naturopathic or other holistic literature as I thought that these might have less credibility in a court of law, being regarded as ‘fringe’ literature, so the evidence that I presented was obtained by carefully sifting through what studies had been published in refereed medical journals, in particular looking at the methods, results and methods of data analysis, rather than just reading the abstracts or the conclusions.

This also meant that I had to write an enormously long report and I had to provide all the references because none, except in Professor Kroll’s Appendix regarding MMR, had been provided with either of their reports.

The enormity of the task presented to me was overwhelming in terms of the scale involved: to give the court a fair picture in the light of what had been submitted by the other two experts, and I had less than three weeks in which to do it. Had the reports of the other experts been balanced, my task would have been substantially less. I would have produced a far shorter report with vastly fewer references.

A meeting was scheduled for the experts at the end of June to identify areas of agreement, Dr Conway did not attend. Professor Kroll and I agreed about the vaccines that he had said could be omitted.

Although I am an expert in my knowledge of vaccination and disease ecology, I am not an expert in being a witness. I relied heavily on my instructing solicitors. However I was not sent the Civil Procedure Rules part 35 which gives guidance and list the duties of expert witnesses and I had no meetings with them or the barristers involved in the mothers' case. I met them all for the first time in the court in Winchester in July 2002.

The first a day and a half of the case was spent hearing an appeal by a newspaper company arguing for the right to have anonymised press coverage of the hearing in the public interest (denied). Then the fathers' expert, Dr Conway, a seasoned expert witness, entered the box and commenced his evidence. It quickly became apparent that much of his oral testimony had not previously been made available in his report and that it was largely a line by line critique of my report. The Trial Judge was clearly annoyed at this tactic and adjourned the hearing ordering Dr Conway to provide a further written opinion to which I should have the opportunity to respond. He ordered Professor Kroll to do likewise and that they should both provide copies of any references that they cited

The trial was re-scheduled to take place on 9th December 2002.

In the new reports in reply to my initial one, both Dr Conway and Professor Kroll supported their opinions with the conclusions of the authors of published papers, but they did not mention when the authors qualified the reliability of the data, before going on to conclude that the vaccines concerned were safe and/or effective. They did not make any criticism of the studies that they quoted notwithstanding any disparity or conflict between the conclusions of some of the studies and the data and results reported.

Dr Conway produced a 62 page report with 44 detailed medical references in reply to mine. It was ready on the 7th September 2002, over three months before the trial, but I was did not receive it until the 20th November 2002. By the time it was sent to me I was left with barely two weeks in which to reply. Even worse, Professor Kroll's report did not reach me until the evening of the 4th of December. I had seven hours overnight from returning home from a meeting at 11pm until 6 am to respond.

Notwithstanding the enormous difficulties involved, I worked all day and many nights to produce my reply promptly, professionally, and to a high standard meeting the incredibly tight deadlines.

The reports involved were complex and technical and no time was available to adequately prepare the mothers’ case. The reports needed to be read, the information assimilated, views exchanged and comments made. There was no time for conferences between myself, lawyers and Counsel to prepare adequately, including the cross-examination of the other expert witnesses. However, an adjournment was not sought.

The vaccination issue was not pursued by Counsel for the mothers for fear that the Judge would not take criticism of vaccination seriously, so I was only examined on my approach to advising parents.

Dr Conway was cross examined to expose a conflict of interest - serving on a Roche drug company panel - and to show that there is a range of opinion about some vaccines medically. For example Dr Conway and Professor Kroll had differing recommendations regarding polio, diphtheria, Hib and pertussis in the older child. Also, a vaccine coverage of less than 80% for MMR means that some ‘normal’ parents choose not to vaccinate. There were questions regarding BCG. Dr Conway had written a paper in the past saying that BCG vaccination was not financially worthwhile. He indicated that his position was now different. Attention was directed to the distress that would be caused to a parent if their children forcibly vaccinated against their will and how this should have an impact on the advice given.

Professor Kroll was cross examined regarding the issue of MMR and autism. This was not a subject I had covered in my already lengthy reports as it was due to be clarified in a then pending legal case (which was not able to proceed as its funding was cut by the Legal Services Commission).

Dr Conway and Professor Kroll were not cross examined critically regarding the the opinions that they had presented as facts in their statements. The inevitable result was that Counsel for the fathers at the hearing had a free hand without effective challenge.

As I have said previously, in the absence of any clear, open, objective and well designed studies on vaccination safety, the observations and recommendations produced in my reports had been made using information gained by carefully sifting through what studies are published in refereed medical journals and other sources; in particular looking at the methods and the results of studies, rather than the conclusions which often do not reflect their findings. Analysing the data in this way raises serious questions about the safety and efficacy of vaccination. It is notable, however, that the authors of the papers from which I quoted, almost without exception, conclude by urging vaccination or repeated doses of vaccinations.

Counsel for the fathers, made great play of the fact my opinions ‘contradicted’ the conclusions of the authors of published papers, repeatedly emphasising that I had not stated when my opinion did not concur with the conclusions of the authors of papers. However an expert must ignore the views of the authors of papers and their conclusions and is obliged to consider each paper afresh and give the expert’s own opinion. This aspect of the cross-examination made a considerable and misleading impression on the judge.

From this it can be seen how Judge Sumner in the High Court came to make his decision to rely only on the evidence of Dr Conway and Profesor Kroll. Further, the comments in the Court of Appeal by Lord Justice Sedley, which were widely reported in the press, that my reports were “junk science”, were inappropriate and made without my having been given any opportunity to be represented and to answer such a serious but misplaced allegation. The Court went on to order that the two girls be given the full range of recommended vaccines.

On the basis of the comments made by Lord Justice Sedley as reported in BBC Online (it is comforting to know that the GMC is monitoring the suitability of doctors to practice in the UK by reading BBC Online!) the General Medical Council accused me of serious professional misconduct which meant they could strike me off the medical register, stop me practising and deprive me of my livelihood if found guilty. It took them more than two years after accusing me in July 2004 to get round to producing any substantive charges. These were served late in September 2006, with a three-week hearing scheduled to start on the 6th of December 2006.

The charges - apart from those stating that that I am a registered medical practitioner; I was instructed as an expert witness to produce reports which I then did produce and that I was aware that the provision of my report might affect the outcome of the litigation – were:

"6. In the reports provided you,

a. Gave false and/ or misleading impressions of the research which you relied upon,

b Quoted selectively from research, reports and publications and omitted relevant information,

c. Allowed your deeply held views on the subject of immunisation to overrule your duty to the court and to the litigants,

d. Failed to present an objective, independent and unbiased view;

7. Your actions in head 6. above were,

a. Misleading,

b. In direct contravention to your duty as an expert witness; unprofessional,

c. Likely to bring the profession into disrepute;

And that in relation to the facts alleged by you have been guilty of serious professional misconduct."

The vaccination expert for the GMC, Dr David Elliman, Consultant in Community Child Health at Great Ormond Street took four and a half months to write his 82 page, 61 reference, critique of my evidence. I was given less than three months to write a reply to it. His report was a line by line criticism of almost every thing that I had said. My defence team told me that they had never seen one like it.

He stated that I had been selective in my choice of references; that my quotations, and that the conclusions drawn by me, from these references frequently did not accord with the conclusions reached by the author and/or researcher.

Dr Elliman criticised what he regarded as my misinterpretation and/or misunderstanding of the references to which I referred and stated that some of the source material that I had used in my reports (textbooks) was not appropriate as a primary source for a report such as I was asked to provide.

He said that I had misquoted; taken material out of context; quoted material that did not actually appear in my references; and been misleading.

At the GMC hearing Dr Elliman was forced to admit that much of his evidence against me was 'quibbling.' For example, he said that I was misleading when I wrote: "some people develop nerve damage causing either muscle weakness or altered sensations" as a side effect of tetanus vaccination. The package insert actually said, "a few." Writing ‘some’ people instead of ‘a few’ is not misleading.

Although this was the level of much of his criticism, it sounded pretty damning when presented all together, page after page, by a Great Ormond Street Consultant with a specialised knowledge of immunisation, in the absence of any reply by me.

Thankfully, the cost of my legal fees was met by my Medical Indemnity Insurance, I was very grateful that I had paid the premiums for all of those years. I had been told by my defence team that the GMC would have to give me at least three months to reply to their expert’s report. I would need at least this much time if I didn't want to repeat what had happened in the original case - trying to keep to impossible deadlines and not being able to have all my information appropriately formulated, tabulated and circulated and discussed with my team before the case.

However, the GMC expert’s report arrived late, less than three months before the hearing was due and I was suddenly told that I wouldn't, after all, have three months in which to reply and that I had no right of appeal.

The situation worsened. My defence team changed their tune. They began to say, “the case is not really about vaccination at all, it is just about your lack of expertise as a witness”, “We don’t need three weeks to settle this case, just three days, then you can get on with your life again after all this stress." "You just have to admit the first few charges because there is no way we can say that you are not guilty of them and we will then argue strongly that what you have done does not constitute serious professional misconduct…”. It is extrememly hard to remain immune from ongoing pressure such as this, especially when the case has been such a heavy burden on, and disruption of, family and professional life, and for such a long time - over two years.

I was told that a deal had been made with the GMC’s barrister: if I admitted to the charges, I would be unlikely to be struck off. All I had to do was admit to the charges of selective quoting, omitting relevant information and being misleading, and let the panel read Dr Elliman’s report - without any rebuttal by me. I was told that it would be very dangerous to my case to have him in the witness box as the panel would be so impressed by his being a Great Ormond Street Consultant - and he so critical of my reports - there was no knowing what damage he might do if he appeared in person.

The plan then changed further: I was told that he would appear in person, and I would still have no right of reply.

Having been unhappy about this plan already , I became more so.

Throughout this case I have had very supportive family and friends. They told me that I musn’t under any circumstances agree to any such deal, which seems obvious now, but at the time I was made to feel by my legal team that if I wanted to defend my case and point out all the inaccuracies in Dr Elliman's report, it was because I was a fanatical person who wanted to stand on a soap box and take on the world.

This attitude was all the more extraordinary because I had made it clear to my team from the very outset that I was more concerned about my reputation than my registration. I had said to them that I would prefer to be struck off maintaining that I had told the truth, than to keep my registration and be ‘that doctor who mislead the Court.’

Two weeks before the case was due to be heard I sent my Medical Indemnity Organisation a long letter, listing my grievances and asking for a second opinion. Instead of a second opinion, my defence team withdrew! I was left, two weeks before the hearing, unrepresented!!

In a panic I had to find another lawyer and quickly. I was fortunate to be able to do so in the person of Mr Clifford Miller. Clifford Miller is not a medical claims or medical defence lawyer, he is a patents lawyer with a sharp, incisive mind, an attention to detail second to none and an encyclopaedic knowledge of vaccination, health and disease trends and the statistics regarding these world wide. He is a scientist by training, having a BSc in Physics from Imperial College and an in depth knowledge of the scientific method, what constitutes scientific ‘proof’ and how this differs from what is accepted as ‘proof’ in a court of law.

My Medical Indemnity Organisation, thankfully, agreed to pay for his services.

He transformed my case. He engaged Ian Stern QC and immediately got my December case adjourned by the GMC much against their will – having taken over two years to produce substantive charges, they now started to complain about ‘delay’. He saw the facts of the case as they were, realised, unlike my previous lawyer that there is another side of the story regarding health, disease and vaccination and that there is plenty of material in refereed medical journals and official health statistics to shows this. He set me to write a detailed rebuttal of Dr Elliman’s report which took half of November, and all of December 2006 and January 2007, working into the early hours to complete.

Having been given the correct instructions, Counsel, Ian Stern needed no further encouragement. He immediately ascertained that the case would flounder in the mountain of paperwork and references so he went through Dr Elliman’s report with a fine tooth comb and extracted 67 points of criticism which he regarded as the 'essence' of the case. He read every scientific paper and textbook reference produced by every expert in the case, word by word and constructed a framework in which these could be presented to the panel at the hearing in an intelligible way. There were so many documents involved that a junior counsel, Sandesh Singh, was engaged:. He proved to be invaluable not only during the preparation of the case but also during the hearing with his ability to remember, locate and cross reference any sentence or phase uttered by anyone at any time in the proceedings. There were also numerous conferences to discuss the issues – all in all, it was a completely different experience to that of the original case and I now saw quite clearly how much the mothers and myself had been let down.

Clifford Miller also instructed Dr Peter Fletcher, a former Chief Scientific Officer at the Department of Health, to act as my expert witness. Dr Fletcher read my report and was of the opinion that I had not been misleading. On the contrary, commenting on Professor Kroll and Dr Conway’s reports he described them as: “… unequivocally focussed upon the benefits, and therefore the safety, of the vaccines and have given absolutely minimal attention to their adverse effects even when they have been clearly included in official literature such as Data Sheets, Package Inserts and Patient Information Leaflets” (Day eight)

However, the GMC was not going to make life easy for me. I live in London. The GMC is based in London. I am the sole care and supporter of two children whom I also home educate. The GMC therefore decided that the case would be held in their offices in Manchester. They even tried to schedule the case for May 2007 – right in the middle of GCSEs. It would be bad enough trying to do GCSEs if your mother went off to a different city for three weeks leaving you to fend for yourself even if she weren’t home educating you, how much more so when she is your teacher as well. I had to get a letter from Education Department of Barnet stating that I would be in dereliction of my duty to educate my children if I went way and left them at such a time.

The hearing was eventually scheduled for three weeks in August, still in Manchester. At this point I decided not to fight any more, it was not a good use of my energy or focus. I know that what goes around comes around and I needed to be able to concentrate on my children, myself and their exams. As my professional indemnity only covered legal fees, not travel or hotel expenses, nor the cost of any childcare, I was going to be out of pocket for these as well as being unable to earn any money for all of that time(hint.. if your life is made really difficult then even if you are not found guilty, you may be put off saying those same things again..).

The whole team arrived in Manchester for the 7th of August. Tom Kark QC, Counsel for the GMC started by listing my alleged misdemeanours and stating:

“You see, I am going to suggest that the aim that I suggest you had, which was to persuade the judge not to order vaccinations, coloured almost every page that you wrote and that in some areas you misquoted or left material out which was quite subtle. In other ways it was more blatant.”

These allegations were widely reported in the media – ‘GP accused of Misleading Court over MMR Danger’, ‘GP ‘Misled Court Over MMR Jabs’

However, a week later, after Dr Elliman had finished being cross-examined by my barrister, Mr Stern, his 67 main points of criticism had been shot down to two. I conceded these as genuine mistakes – which, in the context of a 119 page report, particularly one written under such time constraints, was regarded as not unreasonable, and less than those made by other experts in the case. By the time Mr Kark was summing up at the end of the GMC's case, he had changed his tune, every page of my report was no longer ‘coloured’ in order to persuade the judge not to order vaccines. Now he was saying:

“It is not said by the GMC that the whole of what Dr Donegan wrote in her reports was wrong or unsupported. A good amount of what she wrote was not misleading.” (Day Ten)

Regarding Dr Elliman’s evidence he now said:

“The case is not about the experts or the relative qualities of Dr Elliman or Dr Fletcher.”

Which begs the question: why did the GMC engage an expert to write a four and a half month report in the first place if it were not about, ‘the experts’?

There is much interesting information which can be obtained by reading the transcripts of Dr Elliman, an expert who speaks for the Department of Health on vaccination safety and efficacy, when he is in the hot seat and being asked penetrating questions by an expert interrogator such as Ian Stern QC, without being able to hide behind sound bites, edited interviews, or sweeping statement not backed up by evidence.

It is notable that under cross examination on Day Two, Dr Elliman was forced to concede, that there have been no randomised placebo controlled trials of any of the vaccines in use in the last 20 to 30 years where vaccinated children are compared with unvaccinated children given an inactive placebo (sterile water or normal saline). In the one placebo controlled trial that he cited for MMR, the ‘placebo’ contained, amongst other ingredients, neomycin and phenol red. Neomycin is listed in the British National Formulary as ‘too toxic for parenteral (by injection) use’. (Day Two)

Evidence for the safety and efficacy of all these vaccines come from epidemiological studies which are by nature controversial, and which do not satisfy the criteria for scientific proof.

Dr Elliman, in his report, refused to comment on the sections of my report dealing with:

Factors Affecting Immunity; Are Childhood Infectious Diseases A Good Thing?; Treatment Of Childhood Infectious Diseases; and The Best Interests Of The Child, saying that they had, ‘little relevance to the subject in hand.’ It is no wonder that the Government relentlessly pursues the vaccine agenda when its own experts regard anything other than vaccination to be of ‘little relevance’ to health.

How polarised were my views? I wrote in the summary of my first report,

“It is always in the best interests of the child for the parents to make an informed decision themselves as to whether or not to vaccinate their child or not. In the event that the parents are not able to agree, I think that it is in the child’s best interests that this difficult decision is made by the parent who has:

a) day-to-day care of the child in terms of feeding, clothing and nurturing them to support their global well being and their physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual development.

b) to nurse and support the child through the diseases that they contract, whether they be diseases for which there are vaccinations available or those for which there are not.”

If the fathers had wanted to vaccinate the children and their absent mothers were asking the court to intervene to stop them and the mothers had used me as their expert, I would have presented a report which would have contained the same recommendations as the one I did present. In the summary, in a meeting of experts, and in court I would have supported the fathers’ need, as the parents with day to day care, to be the ones to make the decision, and not to have the family structure weakened by having a decision imposed from above. This continues to be my opinion today.

After the awful experience I had had in the witness box in the initial case, being raked over the coals by a hostile barrister, I was understandably nervous about repeating the process. This time was very different. I had had time to prepare with my team, to be thoroughly au fait with all my references and cross references and to understand that I did not have to answer questions with a straight ‘yes’ or ‘no’ as I had been pressured to before and which had made me say things that were not what I meant. I also had some good friends, new and old, who sat in the rather cramped space set aside for observers and gave me moral support by their presence there.

The panel was composed of one doctor and three non medically qualified members. It was not at all obvious throughout the three weeks where their sympathies lay. One of my patients to whom I have given vaccination advice was kind enough to come into the offices of my Medical Indemnity Organisation in London to give evidence for me by video link, which failed, so they had to make do with a telephone call. The panel asked careful questions of every witness, including myself. They were guided in their deliberations by the GMC’s very experienced legal assessor, Robin Grey QC and astutely chaired by Mrs Sheila Hewitt whose experience is in running industrial tribunals.

At the end of the case the panel spent two days deliberating in camera before appearing on Thursday the 23rd of August to announce their findings. I was cleared of all substantive charges. I found this quite hard to take in at the time, especially as they had not, at this stage, completely agreed on the satisfactory wording for the reasoning behind their decision. This were not given until 2pm of the next day (Day Thirteen).

The findings were, in summary that :

"You demonstrated to the Panel that your reports did not derive from your deeply held views and your evidence supported this. You explained to the Panel that your approach in your report was to provide the court with a alternative view based on the material you produced in your references. That material was largely drawn from publications that were in fact in favour of immunisation.

It was clear from your evidence and the evidence of your witness that your aim is to direct parents to sources of information about immunisation and child health safety to help them to make informed choices.

You told us that there are many books by doctors and others in this and other countries who seriously question vaccination and they cite a lot of history, proofs and medical papers to support their arguments. You did not use any of those publications because you did not think that the Court would regard those as satisfactory support or references for your recommendations. You largely used what was available in refereed medical journals."

"the Panel is sure that in the reports you provided you did not fail to be objective, independent and unbiased."

"Accordingly, the Panel found that you are not guilty of serious professional misconduct."

I was and am quite overwhelmed by the degree to which I have been exonerated. It is, in my opinion, the correct result, but one for which I had never even dared to hope.

I took my Medical Indemnity Organisation’s very strongly worded advice not to talk to the media. As all their cover is discretionary I felt I had no choice but to follow this advice. As a result there was very little coverage or publicity given to the fact that I was completely exonerated and some of that which was reported was incorrect.

I am very pleased that they paid my legal fees, the case cost over one hundred thousand pounds to defend, I could never have financed it myself. The GMC is not a court, so even if you win, you don’t get any of the costs back, so when the defence bodies defend a case, for them, it is just money down the drain. This gives the GMC carte blanche to accuse anybody they like of Serious Professional Misconduct as they never have to pay for anyone except their own team if they are wrong.

What was the advice that most helped me during those three long weeks at the hearing in Manchester? The day before I travelled up I was sent an email by Patrick Quanten, a GP who voluntarily deregistered himself from the GMC and gave up practising as a doctor when his local health authority started to investigate him because he was not prescribing ‘enough’ (!) drugs. He advised:

“ You could look at it as "good experience". Through our own experiences we learn how life really is for us. Maybe at some level it is important for you to go through this. Don't see it as a battle. Don't try and win anything. Sit back and enjoy the ride, because this force is much bigger than you and is not concerned with concepts such as "truth" and "fairness". Just let it happen and concentrate on how the system operates. You will learn a lot.

Whatever happens next, you will benefit. That is if you are not too busy fighting. Wait and watch out for the opportunity.

That is what I am truly wishing for you.”

These wise words did a great deal to sustain me through the three gruelling weeks that followed, as well as the support of friends and well wishers.

What ‘take home message’ that can be gained from my experience?

Perhaps it is that if a parent says, “I’m worried about the safety of vaccination,” they are told, “You don’t understand, you’re not a doctor.” However if a doctor says, “I’m worried about the safety of vaccination,” they are told, “We’re charging you with serious professional misconduct.”

Pleased as I am with the successful conclusion of my hearing, it has taken an inevitable and heavy toll on my children, our family and my professional life.

© Dr Jayne LM Donegan MBBS DRCOG DCH DFFP MRCGP MFHom November 2007

Dr Donegan may be contacted for vaccination information, homoeopathic consultations, general medical dietary and lifestyle advice or for copies of her vaccination report (£8-00 incl. P&P) +44 (0) 20 8632 1634 (Answerphone: Please leave contact details)

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The Importance of Adding Professor Obi to your Google Circles cannot be overemphasized , since most of the Assessment Questions may be drawn from whatever he (personally) considers to be Exceedingly Relevant at the time.

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Please be firmly advised that there is No (Explicit or Implicit) Statutory Mention (whatsoever) of any of the Following 8 Terms , anywhere within the attached Public Record (Death Certificate) of the Late (Apple Inc) Founder Dr Steven Paul Jobs (RIP):

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Further to the raft of Incoming European Union Directives , it is hereby confirmed that the Alternative Medicine Campaign is now effectively part of the International Clinical Movement for the Advancement of Preventive Medicine.

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